Real-time user position estimation in indoor environments using digital watermarking for audio signals


In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the user position where a user is holding a microphone in an indoor environment using digital watermarking for audio signals. The proposed method utilizes detection strengths, which are calculated while detecting spread-spectrum-based watermarks. Taking into account delays and attenuation of the watermarked signals emitted from multiple loudspeakers and other factors, we construct a model of detection strengths. The user position is estimated in real-time using the model. The experimental results indicate that the user positions are estimated with 1.3 m of root mean squared error on average for the case where the user is static. We demonstrate that the proposed method successfully estimates the user position even when the user moves.

Proc. 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)